The following post is a portion of an assignment I did for my graduate class called Foundations of Instructional Technology. This part of the assignment I am sharing we read :
Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72.
Then we discussed our favorite tool using some of the learning theories we have been discussing the past few weeks.
While I may not be 100% accurate on the learning theories I am using (and please correct me in the comments if you think I wasn’t accurate), I thought sharing some uses for EdPuzzle and 3D GameLab would be helpful to readers of this blog.
I’m going to discuss one of my favorite tools I have found to be beneficial using multiple instructional theories: EDpuzzle.
EDpuzzle allows you to make a lesson using any video you want. You can place your own video or someone else’s video from multiple sources and remix them in the EDpuzzle interface and then wrap content around that video.
According to Ertmer & Newby, Behaviorism focuses more on the stimulus than the learner. The goal is to produce observable and measurable outcomes. The learning that happens in a Behaviorist design usually falls in the lower levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.
In EDpuzzle, a Behaviorist would place a video of simple, observable skills or knowledge and then place a multiple choice or fill in type questions throughout the video. Students that answer the questions correctly would advance the video. Students that did not answer the question correctly would be required to repeat the section of the video.
Also from a Behaviorist perspective, the teacher dashboard allows the teacher to see which students watched the entire video and how many times they did. The teacher can even place restrictions on the video so they don’t have a choice but to watch the entire video before advancing.
Voice comments can be added to videos in EDpuzzle, so a Behaviorist could add voice cues as a stimulus to information transferring.
A cognitivist would approach this tool with a video having more meaningful content. The goal with cognitivism, as Ertmer & Newby discuss, is to focus on the mental nature of the learner leading up to response. A cognitivist would take this tool and add more open ended questions to their video. They might even ask for questions from the respondents to be used at a later time (maybe for classroom discussion). A cognitivist might add audio notes to cue previous knowledge or create links between other content.
A Cognitivist would probably also add a video with a bit less direct instruction than a Behaviorist and have some analysis of the content in the video.
Ertmer & Newby describe the focus of constructivism to be the “active application of ideas to problems.” EDpuzzle recently added a new function to assign a project to students (or at least I just recently became aware of it. I’m not sure how long it has been an option). So, instead of them watching a video and answering or interacting with the content, students can create their own content. Students place their own video into the project, or the teacher can specify which video to place in, then they can place their own questions or audio comments on the video. I saw a High School English teacher have students analyze a video of a scene from a play using this tool. I recently used this as a reflection tool with a group of 6th graders. They created a video in groups to answer our driving question, then placed that video in their own individual EDpuzzle and explained their choices using the Audio Comments and text comment features. I, as the teacher, can give feedback to the student within the same EDpuzzle.
I’d love to hear your thoughts on EdPuzzle and/or my application of learning theories in this instructional design.